The collection of precious metals and stones at the All-Russian Decorative Art Museum contains just over 5,500 works of jewellery art. Chronological frames of the collection cover the period from the end of the XVII century till the beginning of the XXI century. The main part of objects belongs to the Soviet period, the 1920s-1980s are presented especially thoroughly.

The Precious Metals and Stones collection started with the transfer of objects from other museums, such as the State Historical Museum, the ROSIZO, the All-Union Art and Production Plant named after E.V. Vuchetich and the Union of Artists of the RSFSR. Later the collection was expanded by purchasing artworks from artists and collectors through the RSFSR Ministry of Culture, as well as donations to the Museum.

In 1999, the All-Russian Decorative Art Museum received the collections of the NIIHP Museum of Folk Art. As a result, the collection of precious metals and stones was enriched with items collected by S.T. Morozov for the Artisanal Museum back in the late 19th century, with materials from the expeditions of the ethnographer E.M. Schilling, as well as exhibits made in the Soviet jewellery workshops; the museum also has a significant collection of craftsmen's art.

It should be noted that the collection of the museum covers a huge variety of styles and forms of jewellery production of the former Soviet republics, which ensures a complete picture of the development of the national jewellery industry.