There are over 6 000 exhibits in the lacquer miniature collection. Lacquer miniatures were painted on different materials: wood, glass, mother-of-pearl, stone, porcelain, papier-mâché, masonite, metal, cardboard and canvas. The collection of the All-Russian Decorative Art Museum includes mainly works painted on papier-mâché.

The collection of miniature lacquer paintings of the All-Russian Decorative Art Museum was established in 1981, when works from the State Historical Museum, the Russian Museum, the Rosizopropaganda State Museum (at present ROSIZO) and the the Union of Artists of the RSFSR were transferred to the Museum. Later the collection was expanded by acquisitions from private collectors and artists, as well as donations to the Museum.

During the 1980s, the collection was enriched with valuable items equal in quality to the best works in the collections of the country's oldest museums thanks to budget purchases made by the RSFSR Ministry of Culture.

In 1999 the museum acquired a large collection from the Morozov Museum of Folk Art: as a result of the acquisition, the collection of lacquer miniatures at the All-Russian Decorative Art Museum became one of the largest and most representative collections in Russia.

The basis of the collection consists of items acquired from private individuals. This way of replenishing the collection was possible due to the popularity of this type of art, its relative availability and wide usage in certain periods of time.

The most important aspect of the Department's work concerning the acquisition of the collection was and still is the establishment and maintenance of close contacts with the centers of lacquer miniatures – Palekh, Kholuy, Fedoskino, Mstyora, as well as with artists, private collectors and specialized educational institutions.

The Museum supports artists and centers of lacquer miniatures by organizing personal and anniversary exhibitions at its venues, as well as in other regions of Russia and abroad. Active exhibition work allows to replenish the collection with items of the highest level.